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"Our American friends had not understood us when they came. They were proud, stubborn people and so were we. They worked with the opportunists, now they have turned to the tribes, and this is as it should be." - Sheikh Abd al Sittar Abu Reesha, leader of the Anbar Awakening. Sheikh Abd al Sittar’s words resonate with wisdom to this day. His is referring to the first ‘Anbar Awakening’ that took place in 2005 and lasted roughly until 2011. During this time, Sunni tribal leaders in Iraq’s Anbar province began quietly forming working alliances with US military forces against al-Qaeda...

Authoritarian governments in the Middle East, particularly in the region’s Arab core, have largely remained resistant to the processes of democratization that have engulfed other parts of the world since the 1970s. This period is associated with the third wave of democratization that began in Southern Europe in the mid-1970s, spread to South America in the early 1980s and reached East, Southeast and South Asia by the late 1980s. The end of the 1980s witnessed a rise of transitions from Communist authoritarian rule in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union...



On Sept. 28, Taliban forces swiftly captured the provincial capital, Kunduz city and managed to hold the city for three days. A major cause of the capture was the unpreparedness of Afghan forces, who mostly fled the provincial capital as the Taliban were moving close to the city. According to some experts the local population prefers Taliban over provincial or federal government. Although majority of Afghans...

Media campaign has always been a vital tool of ISIS propaganda all over the world and the group's sophisticated and skilled media department uses well-planned strategy to target local and worldwide audience. The group has developed capability to publish their own magazines, newspapers, pamphlets and widely use internet (especially social networking websites) to propagate their ideas and goals. The ISIS also skillfully uses media to legitimize their authority...

Al-Qaeda and ISIS have maintained closer ties for almost a decade, until Al-Qaeda leadership disowned the ISIS in February 2014. Originally ISIS operated under the banner of Al-Qaeda in Iraq; however the restrictions imposed by Al-Qaeda on its Iraq franchise led to the split within the network. Initially after the split, Al-Qaeda attempted to resolve its dispute with ISIS, however these efforts failed as ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi directly challenged...

One of the deadliest attacks in Pakistan’s history, killing at least 145 people, mostly children, in Peshawar city of Pakistan. The brutal attack, on the Army Public School and Degree College by heavily armed men, shook the nation as well as the international community. Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) claimed that the school was attacked as a revenge for Pakistan’s ongoing operation Zarb-e-Azb in North Waziristan. “We want them to feel the pain,” TTP..



ISIS is not only the world’s best-funded but also among the best armed terrorist organization. The group controls territory in Iraq and Syria and also operates in areas of the Middle East, North Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia with the aim to establish itself as a Caliphate. ISIS has been designated as a terrorist organization by many Western and Muslim countries and more than 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war...


Like all organizations, money matters to ISIS. ISIS heavily relies upon the revenue earned by oil production and criminal activities (including extortion, theft and plundering) for two main reasons: primarily to fund its soldiers (who number between 20,000 and 31,500 according to the CIA) and secondarily to act like a state and legitimize its authority in the eyes of citizens (by providing them with food, electricity and fuel). Unlike other terrorist organizations...


For the past few decades, the world has witnessed much change in the international political and diplomatic system. Throughout history, traditional diplomacy has been characterised as a business by men, for men, and a typical diplomat was always pictured as a male diplomat. This stereotype has remained a source of major difficulties for women aspiring to enter the field of international relations and diplomatic services...


he advancement of military technology and sophisticated weapons and missiles, gave birth to unprecedented threats to international peace and security. By the end of cold war, the spread of missiles and nuclear technology posed new challenges to world peace. To address apprehensions and roll back this trend, the Group of Seven (G-7) initiated the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). With the aim to halt the proliferation of nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles...

Recent outbreak of Ebola has not only killed thousands of people but has utterly affected the way people live while damaging healthcare systems and demolishing the economies of the West African countries. While Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia struggle to fight with Ebola, many countries have closed their borders, imposed travel bans and enforced necessary quarantines for health workers returning from Africa, to contain and stop the virus from spreading to other regions...

The 9/11 terrorist attacks changed the scenario of international politics; the U.S.-led western coalition initiated the war on terror in Afghanistan, mainly to eliminate threat of terrorism. However, after 13 years of struggle the U.S. failed to achieve its objectives. Today terrorism remains a global political agenda and terrorists pose a serious threat to world peace. Moreover terrorist organizations further expanded into other regions, causing more fear worldwide, with number of attacks and fatalities increasing drastically...



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IRIA also conducts strategic analysis of political and security issues and formulate brief reports and policy analysis on foreign policy, regional issues and current affairs.



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